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Pharmacological bases for treatment of diarrhea

Pharmacological bases for treatment of diarrhea

-Diarrhea results in loss of water and electrolytes from the body and deaths due  diarrhea result from dehydration. 
-Treatment of diarrhea should be based on an accurate diagnosis of the cause.
1-Fluid therapy:

2-Antimicrobial therapy:
l
3-Adsorbants :
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4- Spasmolytics:  Examples: atropine and hyoscine


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Diarrhea results in loss of water and electrolytes from the body and deaths due  diarrhea result from dehydration. 
-Treatment of diarrhea should be based on an accurate diagnosis of the cause.
1-Fluid therapy: 
-Intravenous fluid therapy using saline solutions is an obligatory aids  in severely affected, comatosed animals. 
-Oral fluid therapy is both effective and practical.  .
- Fluid therapy should  contains glucose, glycin, sodium, potassium and citrate or acetate. 
2-Antimicrobial therapy:
 The choice of  antimicrobials for diarrhea is made on the  basis of spectrum of activity and characteristics of absorption 
 ex: streptomycin, neomycin, apramycin, amoxycillin and oxytetracycline.
3-Adsorbents:
Def: These are drugs which can adhere other substance to their surface without chemical reaction.
MOA: They  adsorb poison and toxic materials as well as small amount of gases.
- they form a coat over the enteric mucosa and protect it from irritants.
Adsorbants are non absorbable fine powder  includes charcoal, calcium carbonate, bismuth carbonate, aluminium silicate (Kaolin), aluminium trisilicate and pectin.
Uses : Adsorbents are usually used in case of poisoning and flatulent colic.
3-Adsorbants :
-Kaolin (natural aluminium silicate) has been used as a symptomatic treatment for diarrhea.
- It is intended to adsorb and so remove toxins from contact with the intestinal mucosa. 
-The most important toxins in diarrhea of young animals (the E. coli enterotoxins) do not appear to be absorbed by kaolin, so that its use in neonatal diarrhea is ineffective but  In older animals  kaolin  may be more effective.
-Bismuth salts :  Bismuth carbonate and salicylate are used in the treatment of diarrhea as Bismuth salts have been shown to absorb E. coli.  enterotoxins.
4-Spasmolytics:
 Examples: atropine and hyoscine     

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Aly Ahmed

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